The following are the sources mentioned in this presentation at Genealogy in the Sunshine, March 2015.
Library and Archives Canada: http://www.bac-lac.gc.ca/eng/Pages/home.aspx is perhaps the one best site to start at for your Canadian research. It has a variety of free databases including censuses, passenger lists, military records and more. Also advice on other researching and sources.
Provincial and Municipal Archives: Google the name of the province or community and archives. The same applies for other archives. Check http://archivescanada.ca/english/index.html
For original and transcribed records check the subscription site ancestry.ca (also world subscriptions at other ancestry sites and affiliates). Ancestry has all censuses, 1851, 1861, 1871, 1881, 1891, 1901, 1906 (for the Prairies Provinces), 1911, 1916 (Prairies), and 1921; passenger lists; military records; civil registration including for Ontario, and a variety of other records. Don’t overlook the voters lists for 1935-1974. Ancestry is accressible for free at many public libraries and LDS Family History Centres.
The best single book on Canadian genealogy is Finding Your Canadian Ancestors by Sherry Irvine and Dave Obee, ISBN 1593313160, 9781593313166
Also recommended for English migration to Canada is Ignored But Not Forgotten by Lucille Campey, https://www.dundurn.com/books/ignored_not_forgotten. Also by the same author are several books on Scottish and well as English migration to Canada.
The National Institute for Genealogical Studies offers many online courses on Canada, and othe, genealogy: www.genealogicalstudies.com
Other records with various accessibility are City and Telephone Directories; Cemetery Records; Church Records; Newspapers and personal contact through social networks.
A hidden gem is the digitized local histories online at ourroots.ca